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nginx rewrite 参数和例子

推荐参考地址:
Mailing list ARChives 官方讨论区
http://marc.info/?l=nginx

Nginx 常见应用技术指南[Nginx Tips]
http://bbs.linuxtone.org/thread-1685-1-1.html

本日志内容来自互联网和平日使用经验,整理一下方便日后参考。

正则表达式匹配,其中:

  1. * ~ 为区分大小写匹配
  2. * ~* 为不区分大小写匹配
  3. * !~和!~*分别为区分大小写不匹配及不区分大小写不匹配

文件及目录匹配,其中:

  1. * -f和!-f用来判断是否存在文件
  2. * -d和!-d用来判断是否存在目录
  3. * -e和!-e用来判断是否存在文件或目录
  4. * -x和!-x用来判断文件是否可执行

flag标记有:

  1. * last 相当于Apache里的[L]标记,表示完成rewrite
  2. * break 终止匹配, 不再匹配后面的规则
  3. * redirect 返回302临时重定向 地址栏会显示跳转后的地址
  4. * permanent 返回301永久重定向 地址栏会显示跳转后的地址

一些可用的全局变量有,可以用做条件判断(待补全)

  1. $args
  2. $content_length
  3. $content_type
  4. $document_root
  5. $document_uri
  6. $host
  7. $http_user_agent
  8. $http_cookie
  9. $limit_rate
  10. $request_body_file
  11. $request_method
  12. $remote_addr
  13. $remote_port
  14. $remote_user
  15. $request_filename
  16. $request_uri
  17. $query_string
  18. $scheme
  19. $server_protocol
  20. $server_addr
  21. $server_name
  22. $server_port
  23. $uri

结合QeePHP的例子

  1. if (!-d $request_filename) {
  2. rewrite ^/([a-z-A-Z]+)/([a-z-A-Z]+)/?(.*)$ /index.php?namespace=user&controller=$1&action=$2&$3 last;
  3. rewrite ^/([a-z-A-Z]+)/?$ /index.php?namespace=user&controller=$1 last;
  4. break;

多目录转成参数
abc.domian.com/sort/2 => abc.domian.com/index.php?act=sort&name=abc&id=2

  1. if ($host ~* (.*)\.domain\.com) {
  2. set $sub_name $1;   
  3. rewrite ^/sort\/(\d+)\/?$ /index.php?act=sort&cid=$sub_name&id=$1 last;
  4. }

目录对换
/123456/xxxx -> /xxxx?id=123456

  1. rewrite ^/(\d+)/(.+)/ /$2?id=$1 last;

例如下面设定nginx在用户使用ie的使用重定向到/nginx-ie目录下:

  1. if ($http_user_agent ~ MSIE) {
  2. rewrite ^(.*)$ /nginx-ie/$1 break;
  3. }

目录自动加“/”

  1. if (-d $request_filename){
  2. rewrite ^/(.*)([^/])$ http://$host/$1$2/ permanent;
  3. }

禁止htaccess

  1. location ~/\.ht {
  2.          deny all;
  3.      }

禁止多个目录

  1. location ~ ^/(cron|templates)/ {
  2.          deny all;
  3. break;
  4.      }

禁止以/data开头的文件
可以禁止/data/下多级目录下.log.txt等请求;

  1. location ~ ^/data {
  2.          deny all;
  3.      }

禁止单个目录
不能禁止.log.txt能请求

  1. location /searchword/cron/ {
  2.          deny all;
  3.      }

禁止单个文件

  1. location ~ /data/sql/data.sql {
  2.          deny all;
  3.      }

给favicon.ico和robots.txt设置过期时间;
这里为favicon.ico为99天,robots.txt为7天并不记录404错误日志

  1. location ~(favicon.ico) {
  2.                  log_not_found off;
  3. expires 99d;
  4. break;
  5.      }
  6.  
  7.      location ~(robots.txt) {
  8.                  log_not_found off;
  9. expires 7d;
  10. break;
  11.      }

设定某个文件的过期时间;这里为600秒,并不记录访问日志

  1. location ^~ /html/scripts/loadhead_1.js {
  2.                  access_log   off;
  3.                  root /opt/lampp/htdocs/web;
  4. expires 600;
  5. break;
  6.        }

文件反盗链并设置过期时间
这里的return 412 为自定义的http状态码,默认为403,方便找出正确的盗链的请求
“rewrite ^/ http://leech.c1gstudio.com/leech.gif;”显示一张防盗链图片
“access_log off;”不记录访问日志,减轻压力
“expires 3d”所有文件3天的浏览器缓存

  1. location ~* ^.+\.(jpg|jpeg|gif|png|swf|rar|zip|css|js)$ {
  2. valid_referers none blocked *.c1gstudio.com *.c1gstudio.net localhost 208.97.167.194;
  3. if ($invalid_referer) {
  4.     rewrite ^/ http://leech.c1gstudio.com/leech.gif;
  5.     return 412;
  6.     break;
  7. }
  8.                  access_log   off;
  9.                  root /opt/lampp/htdocs/web;
  10. expires 3d;
  11. break;
  12.      }

只充许固定ip访问网站,并加上密码

  1. root  /opt/htdocs/www;
  2. allow   208.97.167.194;
  3. allow   222.33.1.2;
  4. allow   231.152.49.4;
  5. deny    all;
  6. auth_basic "C1G_ADMIN";
  7. auth_basic_user_file htpasswd;

将多级目录下的文件转成一个文件,增强seo效果
/job-123-456-789.html 指向/job/123/456/789.html

  1. rewrite ^/job-([0-9]+)-([0-9]+)-([0-9]+)\.html$ /job/$1/$2/jobshow_$3.html last;

将根目录下某个文件夹指向2级目录
如/shanghaijob/ 指向 /area/shanghai/
如果你将last改成permanent,那么浏览器地址栏显是/location/shanghai/

  1. rewrite ^/([0-9a-z]+)job/(.*)$ /area/$1/$2 last;

上面例子有个问题是访问/shanghai 时将不会匹配

  1. rewrite ^/([0-9a-z]+)job$ /area/$1/ last;
  2. rewrite ^/([0-9a-z]+)job/(.*)$ /area/$1/$2 last;

这样/shanghai 也可以访问了,但页面中的相对链接无法使用,
如./list_1.html真实地址是/area/shanghia/list_1.html会变成/list_1.html,导至无法访问。

那我加上自动跳转也是不行咯
(-d $request_filename)它有个条件是必需为真实目录,而我的rewrite不是的,所以没有效果

  1. if (-d $request_filename){
  2. rewrite ^/(.*)([^/])$ http://$host/$1$2/ permanent;
  3. }

知道原因后就好办了,让我手动跳转吧

  1. rewrite ^/([0-9a-z]+)job$ /$1job/ permanent;
  2. rewrite ^/([0-9a-z]+)job/(.*)$ /area/$1/$2 last;

文件和目录不存在的时候重定向:

  1. if (!-e $request_filename) {
  2. proxy_pass http://127.0.0.1;
  3. }

域名跳转

  1. server
  2.      {
  3.              listen       80;
  4.              server_name  jump.c1gstudio.com;
  5.              index index.html index.htm index.php;
  6.              root  /opt/lampp/htdocs/www;
  7.              rewrite ^/ http://www.c1gstudio.com/;
  8.              access_log  off;
  9.      }

多域名转向

  1. server_name  www.c1gstudio.com www.c1gstudio.net;
  2.              index index.html index.htm index.php;
  3.              root  /opt/lampp/htdocs;
  4. if ($host ~ "c1gstudio\.net") {
  5. rewrite ^(.*) http://www.c1gstudio.com$1 permanent;
  6. }

三级域名跳转

  1. if ($http_host ~* "^(.*)\.i\.c1gstudio\.com$") {
  2. rewrite ^(.*) http://top.c1gstudio.com$1;
  3. break;
  4. }

域名镜向

  1. server
  2.      {
  3.              listen       80;
  4.              server_name  mirror.c1gstudio.com;
  5.              index index.html index.htm index.php;
  6.              root  /opt/lampp/htdocs/www;
  7.              rewrite ^/(.*) http://www.c1gstudio.com/$1 last;
  8.              access_log  off;
  9.      }

某个子目录作镜向

  1. location ^~ /zhaopinhui {
  2.   rewrite ^.+ http://zph.c1gstudio.com/ last;
  3.   break;
  4.      }

discuz ucenter home (uchome) rewrite

  1. rewrite ^/(space|network)-(.+)\.html$ /$1.php?rewrite=$2 last;
  2. rewrite ^/(space|network)\.html$ /$1.php last;
  3. rewrite ^/([0-9]+)$ /space.php?uid=$1 last;

discuz 7 rewrite

  1. rewrite ^(.*)/archiver/((fid|tid)-[\w\-]+\.html)$ $1/archiver/index.php?$2 last;
  2. rewrite ^(.*)/forum-([0-9]+)-([0-9]+)\.html$ $1/forumdisplay.php?fid=$2&page=$3 last;
  3. rewrite ^(.*)/thread-([0-9]+)-([0-9]+)-([0-9]+)\.html$ $1/viewthread.php?tid=$2&extra=page\%3D$4&page=$3 last;
  4. rewrite ^(.*)/profile-(username|uid)-(.+)\.html$ $1/viewpro.php?$2=$3 last;
  5. rewrite ^(.*)/space-(username|uid)-(.+)\.html$ $1/space.php?$2=$3 last;
  6. rewrite ^(.*)/tag-(.+)\.html$ $1/tag.php?name=$2 last;

给discuz某版块单独配置域名

  1. server_name  bbs.c1gstudio.com news.c1gstudio.com;
  2.  
  3.      location = / {
  4.         if ($http_host ~ news\.c1gstudio.com$) {
  5.   rewrite ^.+ http://news.c1gstudio.com/forum-831-1.html last;
  6.   break;
  7. }
  8.      }

discuz ucenter 头像 rewrite 优化

  1. location ^~ /ucenter {
  2.      location ~ .*\.php?$
  3.      {
  4.   #fastcgi_pass  unix:/tmp/php-cgi.sock;
  5.   fastcgi_pass  127.0.0.1:9000;
  6.   fastcgi_index index.php;
  7.   include fcgi.conf;     
  8.      }
  9.  
  10.      location /ucenter/data/avatar {
  11. log_not_found off;
  12. access_log   off;
  13. location ~ /(.*)_big\.jpg$ {
  14.     error_page 404 /ucenter/images/noavatar_big.gif;
  15. }
  16. location ~ /(.*)_middle\.jpg$ {
  17.     error_page 404 /ucenter/images/noavatar_middle.gif;
  18. }
  19. location ~ /(.*)_small\.jpg$ {
  20.     error_page 404 /ucenter/images/noavatar_small.gif;
  21. }
  22. expires 300;
  23. break;
  24.      }
  25.                        }

jspace rewrite

  1. location ~ .*\.php?$
  2.              {
  3.                   #fastcgi_pass  unix:/tmp/php-cgi.sock;
  4.                   fastcgi_pass  127.0.0.1:9000;
  5.                   fastcgi_index index.php;
  6.                   include fcgi.conf;     
  7.              }
  8.  
  9.              location ~* ^/index.php/
  10.              {
  11.     rewrite ^/index.php/(.*) /index.php?$1 break;
  12.                   fastcgi_pass  127.0.0.1:9000;
  13.                   fastcgi_index index.php;
  14.                   include fcgi.conf;
  15.              }

wordpress rewrite

  1. location / {
  2.         index index.html index.php;
  3.         if (-f $request_filename/index.html){
  4.             rewrite (.*) $1/index.html break;
  5.         }
  6.         if (-f $request_filename/index.php){
  7.             rewrite (.*) $1/index.php;
  8.         }
  9. if  (!-e $request_filename)
  10. {
  11.     rewrite (.*) /index.php;
  12. }
  13. }

2010-1-11更新

discuzx 1.5 rewrite

  1. rewrite ^([^\.]*)/topic-(.+)\.html$ $1/portal.php?mod=topic&topic=$2 last;
  2. rewrite ^([^\.]*)/article-([0-9]+)-([0-9]+)\.html$ $1/portal.php?mod=view&aid=$2&page=$3 last;
  3. rewrite ^([^\.]*)/forum-(\w+)-([0-9]+)\.html$ $1/forum.php?mod=forumdisplay&fid=$2&page=$3 last;
  4. rewrite ^([^\.]*)/thread-([0-9]+)-([0-9]+)-([0-9]+)\.html$ $1/forum.php?mod=viewthread&tid=$2&extra=page%3D$4&page=$3 last;
  5. rewrite ^([^\.]*)/group-([0-9]+)-([0-9]+)\.html$ $1/forum.php?mod=group&fid=$2&page=$3 last;
  6. rewrite ^([^\.]*)/space-(username|uid)-(.+)\.html$ $1/home.php?mod=space&$2=$3 last;
  7. rewrite ^([^\.]*)/([a-z]+)-(.+)\.html$ $1/$2.php?rewrite=$3 last;
  8. if (!-e $request_filename) {
  9. return 404;
  10. }

动态参数rewrite
以discuz7.2到discuzx1.5为例

  1. if ($query_string ~* tid=([0-9]+)) {
  2.     set $id $1;
  3.     rewrite "^(.*)/viewthread.php$" $1/forum.php?mod=viewthread&tid=$id&extra=page%3D&page=1 last;
  4. }
  5. if ($query_string ~* gid=([0-9]+)) {
  6.     set $id $1;
  7.     rewrite "^(.*)/index.php$" $1/forum.php?gid=$id last;
  8. }
  9. rewrite ^([^\.]*)/archiver/$ $1/forum.php?archiver=1 last;

2011-4-21更新

nginx 嵌套if
nginx不支持if and和多层嵌套if,让我头痛很久,需要通过其它方法实现.
下面是把访问镜像网站cnc.c1gstudio.com的爬虫转到www站.

  1. set $needrewrite '';
  2. if ($http_user_agent ~* (baiduspider|googlebot|soso|bing|sogou|yahoo|sohu-search|yodao|YoudaoBot|robozilla|msnbot|MJ12bot|NHN|Twiceler)) {
  3. set $needrewrite 'o';
  4. }
  5. if ($host ~ cnc\.c1gstudio\.com) {
  6. set $needrewrite "${needrewrite}k";
  7. }
  8. if ($needrewrite = ok) {
  9. #return 403;
  10. rewrite ^(.*) http://www.c1gstudio.com$1 permanent;
  11. }

reload nginx后可以用curl来做测试
curl -I -A “soso” cnc.c1gstudio.com

apache 转 nginx 规则工具
http://www.ubuntuset.com/apache2nginx

Posted in Nginx, 技术.

Tagged with , .


8 Responses

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  1. 节日 says

    博主,请问如果http://www.xxx.cn/index.html重定向至http://www.xxx.cn/,该如何写nginx的rewrite规则呢?此篇博文看了好久,但是始终没有开窍,还望博主指点,谢谢!

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