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安装淘宝开源web服务器tengine替换nginx并使用proxy_cache做前端代理

简介
Tengine是由淘宝网发起的Web服务器项目。它在Nginx的基础上,针对大访问量网站的需求,添加了很多高级功能和特性。Tengine的性能和稳定性已经在大型的网站如淘宝网,天猫商城等得到了很好的检验。它的最终目标是打造一个高效、稳定、安全、易用的Web平台。

目前稳定版[2013-11-22] Tengine-1.5.2
特性
继承Nginx-1.2.9的所有特性,100%兼容Nginx的配置;
动态模块加载(DSO)支持。加入一个模块不再需要重新编译整个Tengine;
流式上传到HTTP后端服务器或FastCGI服务器,大量减少机器的I/O压力;
更加强大的负载均衡能力,包括一致性hash模块、会话保持模块,还可以对后端的服务器进行主动健康检查,根据服务器状态自动上线下线;
输入过滤器机制支持。通过使用这种机制Web应用防火墙的编写更为方便;
动态脚本语言Lua支持。扩展功能非常高效简单;
支持管道(pipe)和syslog(本地和远端)形式的日志以及日志抽样;
组合多个CSS、JavaScript文件的访问请求变成一个请求;
自动去除空白字符和注释从而减小页面的体积
自动根据CPU数目设置进程个数和绑定CPU亲缘性;
监控系统的负载和资源占用从而对系统进行保护;
显示对运维人员更友好的出错信息,便于定位出错机器;
更强大的防攻击(访问速度限制)模块;
更方便的命令行参数,如列出编译的模块列表、支持的指令等;
可以根据访问文件类型设置过期时间;

安装jemalloc可以增加性能

cd /root/src/toolkits/
wget http://www.canonware.com/download/jemalloc/jemalloc-3.4.1.tar.bz2
tar jxvf jemalloc-3.4.1.tar.bz2
cd jemalloc-3.4.1
./configure –prefix=/usr/local/jemalloc-3.4.1
make && make install
ldconfig

GeoIP白名单

wget http://geolite.maxmind.com/download/geoip/api/c/GeoIP.tar.gz
tar -zxvf GeoIP.tar.gz
cd GeoIP-1.4.6
./configure
make; make install
ldconfig

使用proxy_cache时增加purge模块

wget http://labs.frickle.com/files/ngx_cache_purge-2.1.tar.gz
tar zxvf ngx_cache_purge-2.1.tar.gz
–add-module=../ngx_cache_purge-2.1

后端nginx编译时需加上–with-http_realip_module以获取真实ip,并指定来源

set_real_ip_from 61.199.67.2; #前端ip
set_real_ip_from 192.168.0.111;#前端ip
real_ip_header X-Real-IP;

编译安装tengine
jemalloc为编译路径

wget http://tengine.taobao.org/download/tengine-1.5.1.tar.gz
tar zxvf tengine-1.5.1.tar.gz
cd tengine-1.5.1
./configure –user=www –group=website –prefix=/opt/tengine-1.5.1 –add-module=../ngx_cache_purge-2.1 –with-http_stub_status_module –with-http_ssl_module –with-http_realip_module \
–with-http_concat_module=shared \
–with-http_sysguard_module=shared \
–with-http_limit_conn_module=shared \
–with-http_limit_req_module=shared \
–with-http_footer_filter_module=shared \
–with-http_upstream_ip_hash_module=shared \
–with-http_upstream_least_conn_module=shared \
–with-http_upstream_session_sticky_module=shared \
–with-jemalloc=/root/src/lempelf/packages/jemalloc-3.4.1
make
make install

GeoIp数据

cd /opt/tengine-1.5.1/conf
wget http://geolite.maxmind.com/download/geoip/database/GeoLiteCountry/GeoIP.dat.gz
gunzip GeoIP.dat.gz

chgrp -R website /opt/tengine-1.5.1/conf
chmod -R 764 /opt/tengine-1.5.1/conf
chmod 774 /opt/tengine-1.5.1/conf

复制原nginx的配制文件于tengine

cd /opt/nginx/conf
cp awstats.conf fcgi.conf htpasswd block.conf nginx.conf /opt/tengine-1.5.1/conf/

检测配置文件

/opt/tengine-1.5.1/sbin/nginx -t -c /opt/tengine-1.5.1/conf/nginx.conf
nginx: [emerg] unknown directive “limit_zone” in /opt/tengine-1.5.1/conf/nginx.conf:71
nginx: [emerg] unknown directive “limit_conn” in /opt/tengine-1.5.1/conf/nginx.conf:136
如果有以上错误,需去掉limit_conn配置,ngx_http_limit_conn_module 模块在新版已使用新指令

增加新的功能
vi /opt/tengine-1.5.1/conf/nginx.conf
根据cpu数量自动设定Tengine的worker进程数量,并进行cpu绑定。

worker_processes auto;
worker_cpu_affinity auto;

关闭系统信息

server_info off;
server_tag off;

ngx_http_sysguard_module
系统过载保护

sysguard on;

sysguard_load load=10.5 action=/loadlimit;
sysguard_mem swapratio=20% action=/swaplimit;
sysguard_mem free=100M action=/freelimit;

location /loadlimit {
return 503;
}

location /swaplimit {
return 503;
}

location /freelimit {
return 503;
}

ngx_http_limit_req_module
并发限制模块

limit_req_zone $binary_remote_addr zone=one:3m rate=1r/s;
limit_req_zone $binary_remote_addr $uri zone=two:3m rate=1r/s;
limit_req_zone $binary_remote_addr $request_uri zone=three:3m rate=1r/s;

location / {
limit_req zone=one burst=5;
limit_req zone=two [email protected];
limit_req zone=three burst=3 [email protected];
}

location /off {
limit_req off;
}

location @test1 {
rewrite ^ /test1.html;
}

location @test2 {
rewrite ^ /test2.html;
}

删除旧的nginx软链接,给tengine增加软链接
rm /opt/nginx
ln -s /opt/tengine-1.5.1 /opt/nginx

一个完整的nginx.conf

user www website;

worker_processes auto;
worker_cpu_affinity auto;

error_log /var/log/nginx/nginx_error.log error;

pid /dev/shm/nginx.pid;

#Specifies the value for maximum file descriptors that can be opened by this process.
worker_rlimit_nofile 51200;

dso {
load ngx_http_footer_filter_module.so;
load ngx_http_limit_conn_module.so;
load ngx_http_limit_req_module.so;
load ngx_http_sysguard_module.so;
load ngx_http_upstream_ip_hash_module.so;
load ngx_http_upstream_least_conn_module.so;
load ngx_http_upstream_session_sticky_module.so;
}

events
{
use epoll;

worker_connections 51200;
}

http
{
include mime.types;
default_type application/octet-stream;

log_format access ‘$remote_addr – $remote_user [$time_local] “$request” ‘
‘$status $body_bytes_sent “$http_referer” ‘
‘”$http_user_agent” $http_x_forwarded_for’;

open_log_file_cache max=1000 inactive=20s min_uses=2 valid=1m;

server_names_hash_bucket_size 128;

#linux 2.4+
sendfile on;
tcp_nopush on;
tcp_nodelay on;

#tengine
server_info off;
server_tag off;
#server_tag Apache;
server_tokens off;

server_name_in_redirect off;

keepalive_timeout 60;

client_header_buffer_size 16k;
client_body_timeout 60;
client_max_body_size 8m;
large_client_header_buffers 4 32k;

fastcgi_intercept_errors on;
fastcgi_hide_header X-Powered-By;
fastcgi_connect_timeout 180;
fastcgi_send_timeout 180;
fastcgi_read_timeout 180;
fastcgi_buffer_size 128k;
fastcgi_buffers 4 128K;
fastcgi_busy_buffers_size 128k;
fastcgi_temp_file_write_size 128k;
fastcgi_temp_path /dev/shm;

#open_file_cache max=51200 inactive=20s;
#open_file_cache_valid 30s;
#open_file_cache_min_uses 2;
#open_file_cache_errors off;

gzip on;
gzip_min_length 1k;
gzip_comp_level 5;
gzip_buffers 4 16k;
gzip_http_version 1.1;
gzip_types text/plain application/x-javascript text/css application/xml;
gzip_proxied any;

limit_req_log_level error;
limit_req_zone $binary_remote_addr $uri zone=two:30m rate=10r/s;

#访问限制白名单
geo $white_ip {
#ranges;
default 0;
127.0.0.1/32 1;
182.55.21.28/32 1;
192.168.0.0/16 1;
61.199.67.0/24 1;
}

client_body_buffer_size 512k;
proxy_connect_timeout 5;
proxy_read_timeout 60;
proxy_send_timeout 5;
proxy_buffer_size 16k;
proxy_buffers 4 32k;
proxy_busy_buffers_size 64k;
proxy_temp_file_write_size 64k;

#注:proxy_temp_path和proxy_cache_path指定的路径必须在同一分区
proxy_temp_path /opt/nginx/proxy_temp_dir;
#设置Web缓存区名称为cache_www,内存缓存空间大小为3000MB,1天没有被访问的内容自动清除,硬盘缓存空间大小为30GB。
proxy_cache_path /opt/nginx/proxy_cache_www levels=1:2 keys_zone=cache_www:3000m inactive=1d max_size=20g;

upstream www_server {
server 192.168.0.131:80;
}
server
{
listen 80 default;
server_name _;
return 444;
access_log off;
}

server
{
listen 80;
server_name www.c1gstudio.com;
index index.html index.htm index.php;
root /opt/htdocs/www;
access_log /var/log/nginx/proxy.www.c1gstudio.com.log access buffer=24k;

if (-d $request_filename){
rewrite ^/(.*)([^/])$ http://$host/$1$2/ permanent;
}

limit_req_whitelist geo_var_name=white_ip geo_var_value=1;
limit_req zone=two burst=50 forbid_action=/visitfrequently.html;

location @visitfrequently {
rewrite ^ /visitfrequently.html;
}

location ~/\.ht {
deny all;
}

#用于清除缓存,假设一个URL为http://192.168.8.42/test.txt,通过访问http://192.168.8.42/purge/test.txt就可以清除该URL的缓存。
location ~ /purge(/.*)
{
#设置只允许指定的IP或IP段才可以清除URL缓存。
allow 127.0.0.1;
allow 192.168.0.0/16;
deny all;
proxy_cache_purge cache_www $host$1$is_args$args;
error_page 405 =200 /purge$1; #处理squidclient purge的时候出现的405错误
}
if ( $request_method = “PURGE” ) {
rewrite ^(.*)$ /purge$1 last;
}

location /
{
error_page 502 504 /502.html;
proxy_set_header Host $host;
#proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $remote_addr;
proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
proxy_pass http://www_server;
add_header X-Cache Cache-Skip;
}
location ~ 404\.html$
{
proxy_set_header Host $host;
#proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $remote_addr;
proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
proxy_pass http://www_server;
add_header X-Cache Cache-Skip;
}

location ~ .*\.(htm|html|)?$
{
#如果后端的服务器返回502、504、执行超时等错误,自动将请求转发到upstream负载均衡池中的另一台服务器,实现故障转移。
proxy_next_upstream http_502 http_504 error timeout invalid_header;
proxy_cache cache_www;
#对不同的HTTP状态码设置不同的缓存时间
proxy_cache_valid 200 304 5m;
#以域名、URI、参数组合成Web缓存的Key值,Nginx根据Key值哈希,存储缓存内容到二级缓存目录内
proxy_cache_key $host$uri$is_args$args;
proxy_set_header Host $host;
proxy_http_version 1.1;
#proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $remote_addr;
proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
proxy_pass http://www_server;
#支持后台expires
proxy_ignore_headers “Cache-Control” “Expires”;
add_header X-Cache Cache;
}

location ~* ^.+\.(jpg|jpeg|gif|png|rar|zip|css|js)$ {
valid_referers none blocked *.c1gstudio.com;
if ($invalid_referer) {
rewrite ^/ http://leech.c1gstudio.com/leech.gif;
return 412;
break;
}
access_log off;
#如果后端的服务器返回502、504、执行超时等错误,自动将请求转发到upstream负载均衡池中的另一台服务器,实现故障转移。
proxy_next_upstream http_502 http_504 error timeout invalid_header;
proxy_cache cache_www;
#对不同的HTTP状态码设置不同的缓存时间
proxy_cache_valid 200 304 5m;
#以域名、URI、参数组合成Web缓存的Key值,Nginx根据Key值哈希,存储缓存内容到二级缓存目录内
proxy_cache_key $host$uri$is_args$args;
proxy_set_header Host $host;
proxy_http_version 1.1;
#proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $remote_addr;
proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
proxy_pass http://www_server;
#支持后台expires
proxy_ignore_headers “Cache-Control” “Expires”;
add_header X-Cache Cache;
}

}

}

启动tengine
/opt/nginx/sbin/nginx

观察了下top降低了许多

===========2014/1/3更新=============
如果负载时大时小可能有io瓶颈,可以将proxy_cache放到/dev/shm 中来解决.(/dev/shm默认为内存一半大小)
创建目录并加入开机执行

mkdir /dev/shm/nginx

vi /etc/rc.local
在nginx启动前加入
mkdir /dev/shm/nginx

修改nginx.conf

proxy_temp_path /dev/shm/nginx/proxy_temp_dir;
#设置Web缓存区名称为cache_www,内存缓存空间大小为3000MB,1天没有被访问的内容自动清除,硬盘缓存空间大小为30GB。
proxy_cache_path /dev/shm/nginx/proxy_cache_www levels=1:2 keys_zone=cache_www:3000m inactive=1d max_size=20g;

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